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General Information

 

In South Africa, one finds the world's strangest and most dramatic landscapes, a unique wealth of animal and plant life, a treasure of gold, diamonds and other minerals, and a kaleidoscope of fascinating cultures.

Nature's tools of creation, the wind, sun, ice and rain, have worked a special magic. There are extremes of deserts, savannas, snow-covered mountains, grasslands, high forests and tropical mangrove swamps. Within these climatic zones, Earth's most diverse plant population flourishes. South Africa is also the home of big game, and hosts birds as varied as the vast range of habitats and foods that nature has prepared for them.

It is the variety of South Africa's fascinating and diverse peoples that is its greatest asset. South Africa is often called the cradle of civilization, for this is where archaeologists discovered 2.5 million-year-old fossils of our earliest ancestors, as well as 100 000-year-old remains of modern man.

Although South Africans come from many cultural traditions, they belong to one nation, a dynamic blend of age-old customs and modern ways, building a new South African society to create a better life for all.

General Information

 

The people


On the night of 9 October 1996 there were 40.58 million people in South Africa (Census '96). Of these, 76.7% classified themselves as African; 10.9% as white; 8.9% as colored; and 2.6% as Indian/Asian. According to Statistics South Africa, the country's population estimates in the year 2000 stood at 43 686 million, of which some 22.7 million were women. The second democratic census was held in October 2001.

The South African population consists of the following groups: the Nguni people (including the Zulu, Xhosa and Swazi), who account for two-thirds of the population; the Sotho-Tswana people, who include the Southern, Northern and Western Sotho (Tswana); the Tsonga; the Venda; Afrikaners; English; coloureds; Indians, and people who have immigrated to South Africa from the rest of Africa, Europe and Asia and who maintain a strong cultural identity. A few members of the Khoi and the San also live in South Africa.

 

Languages


The South African Constitution, 1996 (Act 108 of 1996), states that everyone has the right to use the language and to participate in the cultural life of his or her choice, but no one may do so in a manner inconsistent with any provision of the Bill of Rights. Each person also has the right to instruction in the language of his or her choice where this is reasonably practicable.

 

Official languages


To cater for South Africa's diverse peoples, the Constitution provides for 11 official languages, namely: Afrikaans, English, isiNdebele, isiXhosa, isiZulu, Sepedi, Sesotho, Setswana, siSwati, Tshivenda and Xitsonga.

Recognising the historically diminished use and status of the indigenous languages, the Constitution expects the Government to take positive measures to elevate the status and advance the use of these languages. According to the Census '96 figures, isiZulu is the mother tongue of 22,9% of the population, followed by isiXhosa (17,9%), Afrikaans (14,4%), Sepedi (9,2%) and English (8,6%).

 

The land


The Republic of South Africa occupies the southernmost part of the African continent, stretching latitudinally from 22 to 35 S and longitudinally from 17 to 33 E.

Its surface area is 1 219 090 km2. It has common boundaries with the republics of Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe, while the Republic of Mozambique and the Kingdom of Swaziland lie to the north-east. Completely enclosed by South African territory in the south-east is the mountain kingdom of Lesotho.

To the west, south and east, South Africa borders on the Atlantic and Indian oceans. Isolated, 1 920 km southeast of Cape Town in the Atlantic, lie Prince Edward and Marion islands, annexed by South Africa in 1947.

 

The seas


South Africa is surrounded by the ocean on three sides to the west, south and east and has a long coastline of about 3 000 km. This coastline is swept by two major ocean currents the warm south-flowing Mozambique-Agulhas Current and the cold Benguela. The former skirts the east and south coasts as far as Cape Agulhas, while the Benguela Current flows northwards along the west coast as far as southern Angola.

The contrast in temperature between these two currents partly accounts for important differences in climate and vegetation between the east and west coasts of South Africa. It also causes big differences in marine life. The cold waters of the west coast are much richer in oxygen, nitrates, phosphates and plankton than those of the east coast. Consequently, the South African fishing industry is centred on the west coast.

 

The coasts
The coastline itself is an even, closed one with few bays or indentations naturally suitable for harbours. The only ideal natural harbour along the coastline is Saldanha Bay on the west coast. However, the area lacks fresh water and offers no natural lines of penetration to the interior.

Most river mouths are unsuitable for use as harbours because large sand bars block entry for most of the year. These bars are formed by the action of waves and currents, and by the intermittent flow, heavy sediment load and steep gradients of most South African rivers. Only the largest rivers, such as the Orange and Limpopo, maintain narrow permanent channels through the bars. For much the same reasons, the country has no navigable rivers.

 

Relief features


The surface area of South Africa falls into two major physiographic features: the interior plateau, and the land between the plateau and the coast. Forming the boundary between these two areas is the Great Escarpment, the most prominent and continuous relief feature of the country. Its height above sea level varies from approximately 1 500 m in the dolerite-capped Roggeveld scarp in the south-west to a height of 3 482 m in the KwaZulu-Natal Drakensberg.

Inland from the Escarpment lies the interior plateau, which is the southern continuation of the great African plateau stretching north to the Sahara Desert.

The plateau itself is characterised by wide plains with an average height of 1 200 m above sea level.

Surmounting the plateau in places are a number of well-defined upland blocks. The dissected Lesotho plateau, which is more than 3 000 m above sea level, is the most prominent. In general, the Escarpment forms the highest parts of the plateau.

Between the Great Escarpment and the coast lies an area which varies in width from 80 to 240 km in the east and south to a mere 60 to 80 km in the west. At least three major subdivisions can be recognised: the eastern plateau slopes, the Cape folded belt and adjacent regions, and the western plateau slopes.

 

Climatic features


The subtropical location, on either side of 30? S, accounts for the warm temperate conditions so typical of South Africa, making it a popular destination for foreign tourists.

The country also falls squarely within the subtropical belt of high pressure, making it dry, with an abundance of sunshine.

The wide expanses of ocean on three sides of South Africa have a moderating influence on its climate. More apparent, however, are the effects of the warm Agulhas and cold Benguela currents along the east and west coasts respectively. While Durban (east coast) and Port Nolloth (west coast) lie more or less on the same latitude, there is a difference of at least 6?C in their mean annual temperatures.

Gale-force winds are frequent on the coasts, especially in the south-western and southern coastal areas.

 

Rainfall


South Africa has an average annual rainfall of 464 mm, compared with a world average of 860 mm. About 20% of the country has a total annual rainfall of less than 200 mm, 48% between 200 and 600 mm, while only about 30% records more than 600 mm. In total, 65% of the country has an annual rainfall of less than 500 mm usually regarded as the absolute minimum for successful dry-land farming.

In Cape Town, the capital city of the Western Cape, the average rainfall is highest in the winter months, while in the capital cities of the other eight provinces, the average rainfall is highest during summer.

South Africa's rainfall is unreliable and unpredictable. Large fluctuations in the average annual figure are the rule rather than the exception in most areas of the country. Years when a below-average figure is recorded are more common than years with an above-average total. South Africa is periodically afflicted by drastic and prolonged droughts, which often end in severe floods.

 

Temperatures


Temperature conditions in South Africa are characterised by three main features. Firstly, temperatures tend to be lower than in other regions at similar latitudes, for example Australia. This is due primarily to the greater elevation above sea level of the subcontinent.

Secondly, despite a latitudinal span of 13 degrees, average annual temperatures are remarkably uniform throughout the country. Owing to the increase in the height of the plateau towards the northeast, there is hardly any increase in temperature from south to north as might be expected.

The third feature is the striking contrast between temperatures on the east and west coasts. Temperatures above 32C are fairly common in summer, and frequently exceed 38C in the lower Orange River valley and the Mpumalanga Lowveld.

 

Frost, humidity and fog


Frost often occurs on the interior plateau during cold, clear winter nights, with ice forming on still pools and in water-pipes. The frost season is longest (from April to October) over the eastern and southern plateau areas bordering on the Escarpment. Frost decreases to the north, while the coast is virtually frost-free. Average annual relative humidity readings show that, in general, the air is driest over the western interior and over the plateau. Along the coast, the humidity is much higher and at times may rise to 85%. Low stratus clouds and fog frequently occur over the cool west coast, particularly during summer. The only other area that commonly experiences fog is the 'mist belt' along the eastern foothills of the Escarpment.

 

Sunshine


South Africa is famous for its sunshine. Generally speaking, April and May are the most pleasant months. The rainy season over the summer-rainfall region has then ended, while it has not yet really started in the winter-rainfall area. The hot summer weather has abated, and the winds are lighter than during the rest of the year.

In certain areas, however, notably the hot, humid KwaZulu-Natal coast, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province, June and July are the ideal holiday months.

 

Religion: Religious groups in South Africa


Almost 80% of South Africa's population adheres to the Christian faith. Other major religious groups are the Hindus, Muslims and Jews. A minority of South Africa's population does not belong to any of the major religions, but regard themselves as traditionalists or of no specific religious affiliation.

Freedom of worship is guaranteed by the Constitution, and official policy is one of noninterference in religious practices.

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